LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP. This setup is the most common and efficient setup for production servers and so it is best to begin your introduction to Moodle with a LAMP stack.
You will need to familiarize yourself with the setup and running of a Linux server and the best way to run a Linux server for experimentation is on Windows 10. Seriously. Windows 10 has a Windows Subsystem for Linux which allows a full Ubuntu distribution to run within a window. I choose Ubuntu for stability, good documentation and up to date packages. You can see how this can be done at Install Linux on Windows 10 .
Install a LAMP stack
Ubuntu will be installed as command line only and these instructions show how to Install LAMP on Windows 10
Install Moodle on a LAMP stack
Finally here are the instructions to Install Moodle on Windows 10 Subsystem for Linux.